Papua has a great level of biodiversity including the numbers of bird species, at least the number of species. In accordance with Conservation International (1999), on the island of Papua, there are about 650 species of birds. Then according to Beehler, Pratt, and Zimmerman in 1986, there have been 717 species noted inhabiting the island of Papua.
Cendrawasih is a part of a bird family Paradisaeidae− a bird species that inhabit the Eastern part of Indonesia, especially Papua. Cendrawasih has the features of the birds generally, but its superiority comes from the color of the feathers so bright and striking, making the bird one of the most beautiful and fascinating birds in the world. The essence of the feathers is used to attract the attention of the female bird during the mating season. Papuans believe Cendrawasih is a bird from heaven because of its beautiful feathers. Indonesia is a blessed country being Papua and Maluku are centers of bird-of-paradise. However, this birds’ existence is coming down to a concerning level, because of unrestrained hunting in certain parts of its habitat causing the number of birds decreasing. The specification of this bird of paradise ranges from 50 grams as wide as 15 cm to 430 grams wide as 110 cm. The main habitat of the birds is in lowland forests. There are several types of Cendrawasih that have entered ‘The Indonesia World Records Museum’ i.e. bald parrots, red parrot, Toowa and Yellow Cendrawasih that have been on the list of bird species that should be protected.
Bald Cendrawasih (Cicinnurus respublica). The feather of body color is very beautiful, and the bird also has a very melodious chirp sound. Measured up to only 21 centimeters, the dominant color of the feathers is red and black with yellow neck, then on the part of the beak is bright green, the legs are blue, and the two tail feathers are a circular purple. The skin on the head is light blue with a double black cross pattern. Bald Cendrawasih is considered one of the endangered species, seeing as the type and blend color of the body seems to stick out in nature.
Large Yellow Cendrawasih (Lesser bird of paradise)
Large yellow Cenderawasih birds (Paradisaea apoda) are Cenderawasih birds with large body size. With a length 43 cm, the birds have brown maroon color and a yellow crown. On its throat has an emerald green color and covering the chest is a dark brown. Male birds are reinforced by large pelvic feathers of yellow color and long wire tail feathers. Female birds are recognized with unlined stripes of brown feathers. The large yellow birds of paradise are spread all over lowland forests and in the hills in the southwest of the island of Papua and the island of Aru, Indonesia. The bird’s craving consists of fruits, seeds and also small insects.
Red Cendrawasih (Red bird of paradise)
Red Cendrawasih is indeed identical with Papua. However, it is rarely present in its natural habitat and increasingly difficult to find due to poaching. Known to be a polygamous species, Red Cendrawasih also often attract the attention of their partners by dance rituals, showing off their ornate feathers. After copulation, the male bird will leave the female bird and start looking for another female bird to mate. The female will incubate and will nurture the baby bird by itself. Red Cenderawasih’s food consists of fruits and also various insects.
Cendrawasih Panji (King of Saxony)
Cendrawasih Panji (Pteridophora alberti) is characterized by the two head feathers on adult male birds. For the length of the feather is almost double than the length of its body, with the color of blue pearl. The male birds in black look small with the hairs on the chest, abdomen, and also the yellow armpit. Female birds have gray feathers, on the underside of pale with fine scales, and yellow-orange tail. For female birds, it is very similar to the types of honey-smoked birds. This bird breeds throughout the season, from July to February. The male birds will attract female bird by chirping on high branches.
When a female bird accepts, the males descend to the ground and perform complex movements to gain the female’s attraction. Female birds make and preserve their nest without any help from male birds. In general, the nest is made in the form of a shallow bowl, looking very neat. Also composed of braids of orchids and ferns, the nest is usually built in the branching of trees, 11 m above the ground, usually containing only one egg.
Cendrawasih Dead-wire (Seleucidis Melanoleuca) is one of the endemic birds in Papua with medium size, approximately 33 cm long. For adult male birds, mainly has shiny black color, a yellow color on the belly with 12 black strands of wire, a pointed black beak and red eye irises. On the other hand, the females are smaller and have brown feathers with no yellow feathers nor wires in the same way males have. This type of bird looks very beautiful due to its blend of body color is variative.
Blue Cendrawasih is a medium-sized bird of paradise that has a length of about 30 cm. Characteristics of this bird has the colors of black and blue, half bluish-white, gray legs, dark brown iris, two semicircles around the eyes and bright blue wings. The adult male has a feather tassel on the side of the chest, which is purplish blue. On the chest, there is a black circle oval with red edges. On the tail, there are two long black strands of wire with blue rounded corners. This bird can be found in mountain forests of eastern and southeastern Papua, generally from an altitude of 1,400 meters to 1,800 meters above sea level. Blue Cendrawasih consume food consisting of fruits and various insects.
Crow Cenderawasih (Lycocorax pyrrhopterus) is a bird that resembles a medium-sized crow with a length of about 34 cm. The coat is dark and soft. The beak is black, has red color eye, and a voice call that is reminiscent of a dog barking. Male and female are similar. The female bird is slightly larger than the male bird. The main food consists of fruits. Three subspecies have been identified and characterized by the presence or absence of white patches on the lower wing feathers.
Cenderawasih raggiana or Paradisaea raggiana is a medium-sized Cenderawasih bird about 34 cm long. This bird is yellow and orange reddish brown, blue-gray beak, pink mouth, yellow irises and gray-brown purplish feet. Adult males have red, orange-feathered ornaments and mixed red-orange color on the side of the stomach, dark green throat, dark chest hair, and two long black ropes. The female bird is smaller than the male bird, with a brown face and no ornamental feathers.
Cenderawasih Collar (Lophorina superba) is a black male bird with a green rainbow crown, a blue-green chest hair feathers and hairy shoulder that sometimes can erect velvety black. The females are brown-reddish, and the underside are brown striped feathers. Cenderawasih collars are scattered throughout rainforests of the Papuan island. Known to be polygamous and to showcase one of its marvelous mating dances to female birds. At the beginning of his performance, he will sing aloud with a fast tone, then he starts jumping up and down in front of his females. In a sudden move, his shoulder feathers and chest hairs that had been folded straightens out and expands in his head making him an elliptical dancer.
Cendrawasih Honey is a typical kind of honey sucking bird of Papua. This species is usually found at an altitude of 2,700 to 4,000 meters, which is where Carstensz is located. This species resembles a crow with a striking yellow streak and bright ocher spots on its flashy wings as it flies and soars continuously. This species usually travels in pairs, easy to find as it makes continuous voice, perched on the edge of the trees on the edge of the forest, eating fruits. In the past, the enigmatic and fewer known birds are considered a part of the Cenderawasih species, but really, belongs to the honey-sucking species. Recent genetic evidence confirms that this bird belongs to the Meliphagidae family, which is known to be honey sucking birds.
White Tail Cendrawasih
This particular bird of paradise is well-known as the most spectacular birds with the longest tail feather reaching three times its body length. The length of the adult bird reaches up to 32 cm, while the male bird can reach length as long as a meter. The male bird is identified by the black and olive green and the female, a dark brown. Specifically, male birds have long tails in the form of a white ribbon. It has been also known as Astrapia. The ribbon-tailed bird is endemic to the subalpine forest in the western part of central highlands Papua. Like many birds of paradise, this bird is also polygamic.
King Cenderawasih (Cicinnurus regius) is a bird with a length of approximately 16 cm. Male birds are identified by its bright red and white with light blue legs and green ends feathers on their shoulders. Two of the tails sometimes extends, and the ends are decorated with emerald green feathers. The female bird is brown, and the bottom part is striped. Cenderawasih kings are scattered throughout the lowland forests of Papua and nearby islands. This bird is known as the “living gem” which is the smallest and colorful bird of Cenderawasih. The birds main crave are fruits and arthropods. The male bird usually brings a beautiful dance by swinging its tail, flapping its white belly making it look like a cotton ball and an acrobatic pendulum.